B.N. Wang, R.D. Bennett, E. Verploegen, A.J. Hart, R.E. Cohen. J. Physical Chemistry C 111(48):17933-17940, 2007. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp071798c]
We used small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to quantitatively characterize the morphological characteristics of pristine and mechanically manipulated multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films. We determined that CNT diameters measured near the edges of a film were smaller compared to those measured in the interior. Uniaxially compressed MWCNT films exhibited a buckling deformation that was observable both in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SAXS. CNT films were also converted into cellular foams of CNTs through capillarity-induced densification. By examining spatially- and time-resolved SAXS data for the cellular foams, we identified low angle features in the scattering curves that correspond to the average spacing between CNTs, demonstrating that SAXS is a useful method for monitoring the packing density of CNTs in a film. For all of the morphologies that were examined (aligned, disordered, compressed, and densified), SAXS data showed good correspondence with SEM images.