G.D. Nessim, A. Al-Obeidi, H. Grisaru, E.S. Polsen, C.R. Oliver, T. Zimrin, A.J. Hart, D. Aurbach, C.V. Thompson. Synthesis of tall carpets of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes via in situ generation of water vapor by preheating of added oxygen. Carbon 50:4002-4009, 2012. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2012.04.043]
Dense millimeter-tall carpets of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) were grown using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from ethylene and hydrogen gases with two or three independently controlled hot zones while introducing controlled ?ows of oxygen. Through preheating, oxygen and hydrogen reacted through a multi-step reaction toform water, enabling the growth of tall CNT carpets. This process showed a large tolerance for variations of O2, H2, and C2H4. The measured water vapor produced was half the theoretical maximum. The residence time strongly affected the decomposition of the gases. The simplicity and robustness of this CVD process provides a simpler alternative to direct addition of water vapor for manufacturing tall carpets of aligned CNTs with a high level of control.